PSIA, Master in International Development
has changed since 2014 and macroeconomic challenges are growing. Fiscal deﬁcits have increased in many countries causing some debt sustainability concerns. Finally, a growth more inclusive is crucial to reduce inequalities and to make it more sustainable in the long run. Such a large continent hides huge disparities. The development of Africa was very dependent on concessional resources but the paradigm of aid has changed. A global understanding of technical terms will be provided to explain how concessional lending terms are calculated and how those terms have been driving the development agenda for more than 20 years. While concessional resources are necessary, they are largely unsufﬁcient to ﬁnance the huge needs of the continent. They call for innovative ﬁnancing and instruments to attract investors with right risk mitigation approaches. In parallel, more countries have an access to capital markets but mid-term predictability remains uncertain. Finally, a special business outlook will be provided. While historical major multinationals in particular European ones still occupy strong positions, new comers – especially China, Brazil, India, Turkey, are more and more visible. Simultaneously, new African companies have emerged like the family Group of Aliko Dangote. More and more African companies are willing to embody the new face of Africa. Required reading : Ernst & Young Africa Attractiveness Survey 2015 (http://www.ey.com/ZA/ en/Issues/Business-environment/EY-africaattractiveness-survey-2015) ; Mc Kinsey Global Institute, Lions on the Move : the progress and potential of African economies, September 2016 ; African Development Bank Group, Africa Economic Outlook 2016.
Course validation : Evaluation will be based on active participation to the course, a mid-term paper or a group presentation, and an essay of 5 to 10 pages (expected for the end of the semester). The theme of the presentation and the essay will be chosen among a list of possible subjects. Workload : Readings concerning the subject of the course (one or two papers per week) ; preparation of a group presentation or a mid term paper ; one essay expected at the end of the semester. Pedagogical method : 12 sessions of 2 hours, including presentations by teachers, as well as presentations and critical analysis of papers by students, and group work. Course Description : While the food price crises of 2007-2008 have pushed food security at the highest level of the global agenda, it had already been an issue of international coordination for at least 40 years. But Food Security had also been for a much longer period a very central issue for most national states, at the heart of both their legitimacy and their capacity to control the population. Ensuring food security, particularly by controlling agricultural production, has been essentially an issue of national sovereignty. Claims of “food sovereignty” by many civil society organisations also insist on food security being ﬁrst and foremost a local or national issue. This course seeks to explore this apparently paradoxical situation by analysing how food security issues are addressed in this “two level games”, between national governments and global governance institutions. Through the successive analysis of domestic food and agriculture policies, the various channels through which they are actually inter-related and the history of international institutions dedicated to the governance of food and agriculture issues, the course wishes to make two main points. On the one hand, it shows that the way international institutions frame current debates on food security is deeply rooted in their long history ; this path dependence explains the focus put on agricultural production rather than on other dimensions of food security. On the other hand, it seeks to demonstrate that, in the different streams of international negotiations concerned with food security, locally speciﬁc solutions should generally be explored ﬁrst, even if they can highly bene�