time, international or global markets have established, regulated and possibly subjected to various forms of international economic policies. Speciﬁcally, we shall look at the relationships between the well policed domestic domains, and global markets, or transactions : controls over ﬂows of goods, capital or persons ; diffusion of norms ; coordination and cooperation between national governments and bureaucracies ; crisis management. This approach is developed via a long-term history of the international economy. After an introduction on some interesting medieval experiences, we start with the ﬁrst globalization era (1870-1914) and the ﬁrst international institutions that emerged already before 1914 : for instance, the so-called Regional Unions, in matters like postal services or railway trafﬁc. From there on we shift to the Inter-War period and its two most striking innovations : the creation of the ﬁrst ever multilateral, multipurpose organisation (the League of Nations), and the early attempts at a voluntary, negotiated coordination of economic policies (the 1920 and 1927 conferences). Post-World War II classical multilateralism will then be analysed in details. We shall insist speciﬁcally on the GATT/ WTO, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank : how they work, how they are governed, what their political economy is and, not least, how their mandate evolved over time. Their present position and the challenges they are confronted to is of course part of this discussion. The last part of the course will consider trends and prospects that develop beyond those the big, wellestablished international organizations. Three main themes will be covered at this point : sovereign debt and the interrelations between private markets and national governments ; trade policies and the “non-tariff” issues such as intellectual property or anti-trust ; lastly the role of private regulation, such as commercial arbitration. Required reading : Allen, Robert C. 2011 Global Economic History, a Very Short Introduction. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 170 p ; Alter, Karen 2008 Agents or Trustees ? International Courts in their Political Context. European Journal of International Relations. 14 (1), pp. 33-63 ; Barnett, M., and M. Finnemor. 2004 Rules for the World : International Organizations in Global Politics, Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ; Bordo, Michael, and Barry Eichengreen 1993 A
Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press/NBER. 673 p ; Boughton, John 2001 Silent Revolution, the International Monetary Fund 1979-1989. Washington, DC : IMF.
GLOBAL HEALTH IN AFRICA : CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
Semester : Spring Number of hours : 24 Language of tuition : English ; French
Teachers : Guillaume LACHENAL (Lecturer, Université Paris Diderot). Pedagogical format : Seminar Course validation : Presence, oral participation and quality of the contributions to collective discussion (20%). Paper 1 (5-10 pages) (40%). Group paper 2 (2 pages+oral presentation) (40%). Course Description : The course examines how health and disease are strategic sites for the deﬁnition of Africa's place in the world. It retraces the rise of global health interventions and imageries in Africa, from the colonial period to the neoliberal present. It gives tools to think critically about transnational biomedicine and public health policy in Africa. Drawing from political and anthropological theory, and based on case-studies ranging from disease eradication programs to HIV-Aids activism, the course analyses how biomedicine inspired (authoritarian) projects to transform African societies, and at the same time serves as a ground for political activism, claim-makings and emerging forms of citizenship ; in short, how health is a contested political space in Africa. Required reading : João Biehl & Adriana Petryna (eds), When People Come First : Critical Studies in Global Health, Princeton : Princeton University Press, 2013.
Semester : Sprin