The rise of China and Russia as public diplomacy actors ; NATO's public diplomacy : how the Public Diplomacy Division seeks to understand, engage, advocate, evaluate, and adapt the Alliance messages after the end of the Cold War ; Communicating with foreign public opinions in times of crisis situation (EU CSDP mission – examples of policies and strategies of communication) ; The OSCE and the art of the "hard-sell" ; Virtual public diplomacy : blogs, websites, and virtual worlds ; Climate change public diplomacy. Required reading : Websites to consult :http :// uscpublicdiplomacy.org/ ; http ://www.publicdiplomacycouncil.org/tufts-papers ; http ://www. clingendael.nl/cdsp/publications/discussionpapers/archive.html.
politics, regional conﬂicts and international rivalries ; The Cold War and post-Cold War signiﬁcance of the Middle East in global politics ; The importance of oil and other economic factors and interests ; Conﬂict in the Gulf and the Arab-Israeli conﬂict ; The foreign policies of major Middle Eastern states and the Lebanese civil war ; The role of ideologies and social movements : Arab nationalism, militarism, political Islam and global jihadism ; State and non-state actors ; Democracy and human rights issues, and the Arab uprisings ; International relations theory and its signiﬁcance for the study of Middle East politics. Course Objectives : To provide students with an introductory analysis of the International Relations of Middle Eastern politics since 1918 and the historical evolution of the international system. To give students a grounding in the development of the International Relations in the modern Middle East and to enable them to relate the course of events to analytic issues in the study of International Relations. To train students to think conceptually, and provide them with a critical understanding of how IR approaches and frameworks can help make sense of (and indeed at times obscure) developments in the Middle East. To familiarise students with linkages between domestic politics and international relations/ foreign policy, and how regional developments interact with problems of international security, global resources and great power policies. To encourage students to consider various actors and agents in the politics of the region - from the state level to non-state actors and public opinion, from internal regional forces to external international forces. To ensure students are engaged with the existing literature on the Middle East, and to encourage understanding, analysis and critique of scholarly arguments. To enable students to read, discuss and write on the subject in a clear and critical manner. To train students in the ability to construct an argument through the combined use of empirical examples, theoretical tools and historical understanding. 1565
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Semester : Autumn Number of hours : 24 Language of tuition : English
Teachers : Fawaz GERGES (Professeur). Pedagogical format : Seminar Course validation : Students will be expected to submit two essays of c. 2,000 words, based on past examination papers, to be marked by their seminar teacher. Essays should be handed in to the seminar teacher. The deadlines are week 5 and week 11. Pedagogical method : Lecture classes. Course Description : The course provides an analysis of the regional politics of the Middle East since 1918, and of their interaction with problems of international security, global resources and great power/superpower politics. The way in which states, populations, social movements and ideas interact with both the regional and international system plays an important role in understanding the international relations of the Middle East. Topics covered include : The emergence of the state system in the Middle East during the inter-war period ; The interplay of domestic