PAKISTAN AT THE CROSSROADS : ONCE AGAIN
Semester : Spring Number of hours : 24 Language of tuition : English
Opened to the exchange program
Teachers : Virginie DUTOYA (Chargée de recherches), Asma FAIZ (Etudiante doctorante), Christophe JAFFRELOT (Research Director, CERI - Sciences Po), Jules NAUDET (Chargé de mission au collège universitaire). Prerequisite : Students are expected to have some knowledge of social sciences methods and the history of South Asia. Pedagogical format : Seminar Course validation : One ﬁnal paper, about 25-page-long (excluding tables and the bibliography), double space, 12 font, on a topic approved by Christophe Jaffrelot. The paper is due at CERI, 56, rue Jacob, 75006 Paris. 80% term paper ; 15% participation ; 5% attendance. Workload : Students are expected to read "readings" every week. Pedagogical method : An interactive presentation by Christophe Jaffrelot (two thirds of the class) and a general discussion based on Q&A. Course Description : Pakistan is at the crossraods of many regions — South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East. This geographical position is partly responsible for the nation's lack of unity because of irredentist movements among some of the country's ethnic groups since islam has not been able to transcend ethno-linguistic identities (as evident from the Movement for Bangladesh). This failure reﬂects the fact that Islam was mainly used as an instrument to mobilise masses in favour of Pakistan by sections of the Muslim elites during the British Raj. Pakistan is at the crossroads for other reasons too. The form of its political regime oscillates between democratisation and dictatorship. Its trajectory has been marked by three Constitutions and three military coups. But some army men have not been more disrespectful of democracy as some civilians, which means that democratic ressources have to be looked for mainly in civil society and the judiciary — an institution which has not always been true to its mission.
Beyond the regime question, the role of islam and islamism in the social and political fabrics of Pakistan needs to be scrutinised. While Jinnah's legacy and the Ayub Khan era combined Muslim identity politics with recognition of the minorities, Z.A. Bhutto's populism and Zia's regime promoted the islamic repertoire. More generally speaking, the army got connected with islamic parties and jihadist movements, not only because of elective afﬁnities, but also in order to ﬁght the Soviets in Afghanistan and India in Kashmir. However, parallel to islamism, sectarianism developed in the 1980s after Shias received support from Khomeini's Iran and the Sunnis help from Saudi Arabia — and Zia. Last but not least, Pakistan is at the crossraods on the international scene. Few countries are so largely depending upon foreign support : not only Pakistan's politics is overdetermined by the Indian factor, but Islamabad is traditionally an American ally, with Washington exerting some inﬂuence over the country through its aid policy. However, the Pakistan-US relations are less stable than thosee between Pakistan and China and Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, a country whose strategy in the region is a cause for concern on the India in India and the US. Required reading : Ahmed, Feroz, Ethnicity and Politics in Pakistan, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 1998 ; Cohen, Stephen P., The Pakistan Army, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 1998 ; Cohen, Stephen P., The Idea of Pakistan, Lahore, Vanguard Books, 2005 ; Hardy, Peter, The Muslims of British India, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1972 ; Hasan, Mushirul, Communal and Pan-Islamic Ttrends in Colonial India, Delhi, Manohar, 1985.
PENSER HISTORIQUEMENT L'AMÉRIQUE LATINE CONTEMPORAINE : 2016 - 1492
Semestre : Automne Nombre d'heures : 24 Langue d'enseignement : français
Enseignants : Olivier COMPAGNON (Professeur des Universités). Format pédagogique : Séminaire Mode de validation : Paper (can be written in english). 1591