Campus Moyen-Orient-Méditerranée, Menton
2a. The Justiﬁcation of Democracy, 2b. Democracy and Cultural Diversity. 3a. Democracy as Participation, 3b. New Participatory Practices in Democracy. 4a. Representation in Democracy, 4b. From Political Parties to … ? 5a. The Paradoxes of Aggregation, 5b. Majoritarianism : For and Against. 6a. The Idea of a People, 6b. Democracy and International Obligations. Required reading : Kendall W. Stiles (2013). Case Histories in International Politics. Seventh edition. Longman..
Session 1 : State, society and identity in the Middle East (2 hours) This session will provide an overview of the process of state formation in the Middle East following World War I, and the subsequent 20th century paradigm of the 'one man show,' where charismatic dictators often belonging to minority groups suppressed outward displays of particularized identity in favor of nationalist, pan-Arab or pan-Islamic ideologies. It will then explore the ways that such primordial identities have become major driving forces for behavior in the current Middle East. Session 2 : Iraq – The dream that failed (4 hours) This session will focus on the creation of Iraq as a multi-ethnic state composed of Kurds, Sunnis, and Shi'a. While Shi'a represented over 60% of the population, they were nevertheless dominated during the 20th century by the Sunni minority, which adopted an Arab nationalist identity as a way of obscuring their own minority status. Following the 2003 ouster of Saddam Hussein, the Sunni-dominated Ba‘ath party, which ruled for decades with an iron ﬁst, disappeared from the political landscape in Iraq, but this did not heal the rift in the Iraqi state. On the contrary, the deBa‘athiﬁcation policy became the legal means for the new Shiite government's systematic exclusion of Sunnis and relentless pursuit of political opponents. The main enterprise of the Shi'i government in Baghdad became the obsessive hunt for loyalists of the “old regime” and a removal of their memory from the public space. Taiﬁyya (ethnicity) a foundational element of modern Iraq, and an element which has colored every national proposition, was to be the unraveling of the “new Iraq.” Sunnis, for the most part, were discriminated against in the new reality, while they viewed the “new Iraq” as a Shi'i enterprise sponsored by the West. This, in turn, fueled support for al-Qaeda and later the Islamic State, and has complicated present efforts to defeat the latter. Session 3 : Syria – the ongoing tension between vision and reality (4 hours) This session will examine the case of Syria, which many have argued to be one of the greatest humanitarian catastrophes of the last sixty years, and which has become the prototypical Middle Eastern failed state. During the last two decades of the 20th century, Syria was perceived as a 209
YEMEN, LYBIA, IRAQ, SYRIA : FAILLED STATES ? STATE COHESION I THE MIDDLE EAST AFTER THE ARAB SPRING
Semester : Autumn Number of hours : 24 Language of tuition : English
Teachers : Uzi RABI (Professor). Pedagogical format : Elective Course validation : - 1 oral presentation (article review) (40% of course mark) ; - 1 take-home exam (4-page paper) (50% of course mark) ; - In-class participation (10% of course mark). Course Description : The aftermath of the 'Arab Spring' has brought tectonic change to the Middle East and North Africa. The states of Iraq and Syria, whose borders were drawn a century ago by the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916, have been torn asunder. Libya and Yemen, meanwhile, have witnessed the overthrow of autocratic rulers and now face protracted internal struggles as well. The breakdown of state authority in the Middle East has been further underscored by the renewed vitality of older frameworks of identity - ethnic, religious and tribal - throughout the region. The collapse of governing and economic structures have left a vacuum which stirred the appetites of armed, tribal and sectarian militias and radical Islamic organizations. At the same time, the ethno-religio