Collège universitaire / Undergraduate Program / Enseignements / Teachings
to the other ? Are the social protection systems implemented in the post-war period still ‘alive and kicking' ? What are the main difﬁculties and reforms occurring throughout Europe ? How do European countries deal with these challenges ? Is the European level interfering in the processes of national reforms ? The aim of the course is to provide students with a clear idea of the diversity of European social policies, of their political background, and to allow for the assessment of their performance. The course will also provide an in-depth account of current welfare reforms, in the perspective of their historical development. The social science analysis concepts (de-/re-commodiﬁcation, path dependency, Varieties of Capitalisms) will also be used in order to understand the issues at stake in recent debates concerning the welfare state and the trajectories of their reforms. Required reading : ESPING-ANDERSEN, Gøsta (1990), The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge, Polity Press ; MOREL, Nathalie, PALIER, Bruno, PALME, Joakim (dirs.), Towards a Social Investment Welfare State ? : Ideas, Polices and Challenges. Bristol : The Policy Press, 2012 ; EMMENEGGER, Patrick, HÄUSERMANN, Silja, PALIER, Bruno, SEELEIB-KAISER, Martin (dirs.), The Age of Dualization : The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012, 368 p.
discussions. Each student will be expected to brieﬂy assess and comment every team presentation given in class. Workload : Reading mandatory readings (chapters to be deﬁned in session 1) should not take more than 30 minutes per session, although it is preferred if the students go through the readings before the start of the course. The term paper will have a limited length of 1,500 words and students will have one week to complete it, so that it does not occupy them for too long. Regarding data collection, data sources will be provided, as well as the data collection format, it will be worth about 5 hours of team work. Pedagogical Method : Seminar course with participative emphasis. Course Description : This course aims to understand various forms of political violence such as war, genocide and “terrorism” from the perspective of social psychology. Without denying instrumental uses of political violence to achieve some material ends (proﬁt, power), I consider that violence is always emotionally sustained because, in most social contexts, violence is not accepted as a “normal means” for political ends. Negative emotions, that lead to violence onset and fuel its severity, can stem from several situations, such as symbolic grievances, existential discrimination, relative deprivation. Drawing from the conceptual framework from T. Gurr and T. Lindemann, we will defend the idea that the severity of political and civil violence is strongly correlated with the perception of symbolic or existential discrimination. Furthermore, we will identify - counterintuitively - some other types of discrimination that can mitigate the severity of political and civil violence. Indeed, after a quick review of the major theories - including non-psychological - theories of political and civil violence, we will highlight the “Relative Deprivation” approach by T. Gurr, as well as the “Recognition” aspects of political and civil violence severity by T. Lindemann. To conclude, we will unveil the new possibilities for operationalisation and quantitative analysis the social psychology approach allows. Required reading : Thomas Lindemann, Erik Ringmar, The International Politics of Recognition, Paradigm Publisher, 2012 ; Ted Gurr, Why Men Rebel, Princeton University Press, 1970 ; 475
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF VIOLENCE
Semester : Autumn Number of hours : 24 Language of tuition : English
Teachers : Omar LAYACHI (PhD Candidate, Ecole Polytechnique). Pedagogical Format : Elective Course validation : Written work : each student is expected to provide an analysis of a self-chos